The medical term for blood in urine is haematuria. In haematuria, your kidneys or parts of your urinary tract allow blood cells to leak into the urine. Sometimes, blood is in the urine, but it cannot be easily seen. When blood is detected in your urine test sample by using a chemical strip (called a dipstick) or under a microscope, the condition is called "microscopic haematuria". Most patients do not experience any symptoms, but sometimes microhaematuria can be accompanied with a burning sensation during urination, strong persistent urge to urinate, or strong-smelling urine.
When blood is detected in the urine, we will want to make sure that no serious health issues are involved, such as Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), bladder stones, kidney stones, bladder cancer, or kidney cancer.
A person at low risk may be asked to repeat a urine test within six months. Patients with intermediate risk will be recommended to have a cystoscopy procedure to look at the inside of the bladder and a renal ultrasound to look at the kidneys. Those who are at high risk may undergo an additional CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis to look at the lining of the urinary tract. Treatment for microhaematuria depends on the cause of it.
PSA test is a blood test used to screen for prostate cancer. The test measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA is a protein produced by both cancerous and noncancerous tissues in the prostate, a small gland that sits below the bladder in males.
The PSA test can detect high levels of PSA that may indicate the presence of prostate cancer. Other conditions, such as an enlarged prostate or inflamed prostate , can also increase PSA levels. Early detection is crucial in getting appropriate and timely treatment.
The PSA test is only one tool used to screen for early signs of prostate cancer. A typical screening test done in addition to a PSA test is the digital rectal exam (DRE), where the doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to reach the prostate. By feeling or pressing on the prostate, abnormal lumps can most likely be detected.
Abnormal results in the PSA test and DRE may lead to a prostate biopsy recommendation. During a prostate biopsy, samples of prostate tissue are removed for laboratory examination. A diagnosis of cancer is based on the biopsy results.
For those who have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer, the PSA test may be used to judge the effectiveness of a treatment or to check for recurring cancer.
If you have trouble urinating or have a slow stream of urine, we may suggest performing a uroflowmetry test. Uroflowmetry measures the flow of urine, tracking how fast urine flows, how much flows out, and how long it takes. It is a diagnostic test to assess how well the urinary tract functions and detect an obstruction, such as an enlarged prostate. When combined with the cystometrogram (CMG), it can help find problems like a weak bladder.
For this test, arrive at your appointment with a fairly full bladder. You will be asked to urinate into a funnel connected to the electronic uroflowmeter. This records information about your urine flow on a flow chart, calculating your average and top flow rates. We will know your test results right away.
A slow or low flow rate may mean obstruction at the bladder neck or in the urethra, an enlarged prostate, or a weak bladder. A fast or high flow rate may mean that the muscles around the urethra are weak or an indication of urinary incontinence problems
Post-void residual volume (PVR) is the amount of urine retained in the bladder after a voluntary void and functions as a diagnostic tool. A post-void residual volume helps evaluate disease processes, such as neurogenic bladder, cauda equina syndrome, urinary outlet obstruction, mechanical obstruction, medication-induced urinary retention, postoperative urinary retention, and urinary tract infections. Evaluating for post-void residual is typically performed using ultrasound, a bladder scanner, or directly measuring the urine volume drained by a urinary catheter.
Most urodynamic tests ask that you come to the test with a full bladder. For some tests, you may need to change the amount of fluid you consume or stop taking certain medications. You may also be asked to complete a "bladder diary" where you write down what fluids you drink over a few days and when you make trips to the bathroom
Also known as pelvic ultrasound, transabdominal ultrasound is a test that uses sound waves to make pictures of the organs inside your pelvis. It is used to check for problems in the bladder, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles (glands that add fluid to semen) and find bladder tumours or stones.
If you are undergoing a transabdominal ultrasound, your bladder will need to be full. A full bladder makes your organs show up more clearly on the picture. Wear loose comfortable clothes to the examination. During the procedure, you will lie on your back on an examination table, a gel-like substance is applied to your abdomen, and the transducer will be pressed against the skin and moved around over the area being studied.
Following the ultrasound, further tests, such as laparoscopy, may be recommended to check the health of your pelvic organs.
Prostate ultrasound and biopsy are tests that check the abnormal results of a digital rectal exam or an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test.
Prostate ultrasound uses a probe about the size of a finger that is inserted into the rectum. The probe can provide images at different angles to help your doctor estimate the size of your prostate and spot abnormal growths.
A prostate biopsy uses transrectal ultrasound imaging to guide several small needles through the rectum wall into areas of the prostate where the doctor sees something unusual. The needles remove a tiny amount of tissues that are sent to a lab for testing. The biopsy results will help us diagnose disorders and diseases in your prostate.
During the procedure, you will lie on your side with your knees drawn up. Medication is used to numb the area, but it may hurt a little or feel uncomfortable. The entire procedure lasts between 10 to 20 minutes.
Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure that lets a urologist view the inside of the bladder and urethra in detail. It is often used to find causes of bleeding, blockage, or any abnormalities of the bladder and its lining.
Before the procedure, you will empty your bladder. You will be placed on an examination table, and a liquid or gel local anaesthetic may be used on your urethra. The cystoscope, a thin, lighted tube with lenses, is then inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Water or saline is infused through the cystoscope into the bladder. As the fluid fills the bladder, the bladder wall is stretched so the urologist can see clearly. The average cystoscopy takes about 5 to 10 minutes.
The bladder wall should appear smooth, and the bladder should be of normal size, shape, and position. If any tissue appears abnormal, the cystoscope can be used to remove a small sample. After the procedure, your urethra may be sore, and you may have a burning feeling for up to 48 hours. You may find some blood in your urine at first, but this should go away within 12 to 24 hours.